The Western Toads are found in the Arrow Lakes Valley and along its tributaries, in the Slocan Valley including areas around New Denver, Silverton, Castlegar, and in the Kootenay Lake area from Nelson North to Duncan Lake.
Around Summit Lake they are found up and down the lake with the highest breeding areas concentrations along the South shoreline. The Western Toad is also found in Box Lake and other lakes in the area, on both sides of the Arrow Lakes.
The NACFOR Summit Lake Operating Area is a productive and economically important part of the Nakusp and Area Community Forest. Previous to the NACFOR Community Forest Agreement (CFA), this area had a disturbance history from both wildfire and logging. Catastrophic fires have burned large areas of the mountainside and the area has been periodically harvested, in 2007 by BC Timber Sales and most recently in 2017-2019 when NACFOR harvested seven small cut blocks. The NACFOR harvesting plans were tailored to reduce impacts on the Western Toads and to ensure good habitat remained after harvesting.
We invite you to review the following documents to learn about research and management plans for the Western Toad at Summit Lake.
The Forest Practices Board has issued a News Release upon completion of its Complaint Investigation into Western Toads and Forest Harvesting Near Summit Lake. Go to News Release or download the Forest Practices Board’s report.
Here are some links to some key reference/research documents:
- Summit Lake Western Toad Project – 2015 Field Season. Prepared by: Jakob Dulisse (Jakob Dulisse Consulting), John Boulanger (Integrated Ecological Research), Irene Manley (FLNRO) for Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program and the Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations.
- Western Toad Migration at Summit Lake – 2014 Field Season. Prepared by Jakob Dulisse, Jakob Dulisse Consulting, Nelson BC for Irene Manley, Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resources, Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program.
- Western Toad Migration at Summit Lake – 2012 Field Season. Prepared by Jakob Dulisse, Jakob Dulisse Consulting, Nelson BC and John Boulanger, Integrated Ecological Research, Nelson, BC for Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program.
- COSEWIC. 2012. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Western Toad Anaxyrus boreas in Canada. By the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. This document is on the Government of Canada’s Species at Risk Public Registry website.
- Movement behaviour of adult western toads in a fragmented, forest landscape. By Isabelle DEGUISE and John S. RICHARDSON, Department of Forest Sciences, The University of British Columbia. This document is in the Government of British Columbia’s online library.